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Bounce Pep Dictionary

Copyright © 2024 Bounce Pep

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or used in any manner by an electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Disclaimer: The author in no way, shape, or form considers any of the information in this book to be promise, guarantee, warranty, or any form of professional advice. It is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Nor does this document replace the advice of a medical professional. Consult your physician before making any changes to your diet or regular health plan.
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16:8 Diet (also called 16:8 Fasting)

See Intermittent Fasting.


5:2 Diet
See Intermittent Fasting.



The region between your pelvis and the thorax, comprising the digestive tract and other organs that help with digestion, the urinary system, spleen, and the abdominal muscles.



When you move or open your limbs or other body parts away from the center of your body.
{opposite} Adduction


Abdominal Muscles

A group of muscles that run from your rib cage to your pelvis. They keep your internal organs in place and support your trunk.

Abs (also called Rectus Abdominis)
Superficial muscles at the front of your abdomen, which begin at your rib cage and extend down to your pubic bone and are commonly known as a “six-pack” when visibly well defined.

Oblique Muscles
The group of muscles located on the left and rights sides of your abs.

External Oblique (also called External Abdominal Oblique or Side Abs)
The superficial muscles located on either side of your rectus abdominis.

Internal Oblique (also called Internal Abdominal Oblique)
The muscles located directly beneath and complementary to the external oblique.

Transversus Abdominis
The deepest abdominal muscle, whose muscles fibers run horizontally instead of vertically such as the other abdominal muscles do. This muscle is important for protecting your spine.



See Abdominal Muscles.


Acidic Foods

Foods that create acid in your body when you digest them. Curiously, citrus fruits are high in acidity, but do not increase acidity in your body when digested and are therefore considered to be alkaline foods. (See Alkaline Foods.) Alcoholic beverages, beef, cheese, eggs, fried foods, grains, milk, pork, processed foods, poultry, soft drinks, and white bread are some examples of acidic foods.  



Substances added to foods to make them taste better and enhance their color and texture. Additives may also preserve the shelf life of foods.



When you move or close your limbs or other body parts towards the center of your body.
{opposite} Abduction



A band of scar tissue your body produces to repair damaged tissue and prevent infections, but that abnormally binds to an internal organ as well, causing pain and discomfort.


Adipose Tissue (also called Body Fat)

A type of connective tissue that stores fat in your body.

Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT) (also called Subcutaneous Fat)
Fat contained in the deepest, or subcutaneous, layer of your skin. It keeps your body warm and absorbs impacts to protect your blood vessels, muscles, bones, and internal organs.

Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) (also called Visceral Fat)
Adipose tissue that gets stored in your abdominal cavity around vital organs such as the liver, intestines, pancreas, and stomach. Having a lot of visceral fat causes your belly to become rotund, making you appear fat and out of shape. Too much visceral fat increases insulin resistance and your risk of diabetes. It can lead to plaque accumulating in your arteries as well, raising your risk of heart disease and heart attacks. It also raises your blood pressure and increases your risk of strokes, breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Restricting your intake of sugary, fatty, and processed foods is the best way to limit the buildup of visceral fat, and you can burn visceral fat by doing aerobic exercises and strength training. Be aware that cortisol released in response to stress also causes your body to store more visceral fat.



A broadly defined type of exercise that focuses on increasing your heart rate and improving cardiovascular performance through moderate exercise. As such, aerobics is a good way to burn calories and fat. It includes elements of strength training as well. Typical aerobic exercises are dance classes, cardio machines, cycling, running, etc. 



A muscle that lengthens and relaxes during an exercise.
{opposite} Antagonist


Alkaline Diet (also called Acid-Alkaline Diet and Alkaline Ash Diet)

A diet heavily skewed towards eating foods such as fruits, legumes, nuts, seeds, and vegetables, with the intent of maintaining the proper pH level of 7.35~7.45 in your blood to create an alkaline (i.e., antacid) effect and reduce the risk of developing cancers. The consumption of alcohol, coffee, dairy, fat, gluten, meat, pasta, processed foods, seafood, soft drinks, sugar, and tea is shunned.


Alkaline Foods

Foods such as fruits, nuts, legumes, and vegetables that have an alkaline effect, meaning they reduce the level of acidity in your stomach when digested and mitigate the risk of heartburn, stomach aches, bloating, and diarrhea. Some examples of alkaline foods are almonds, apples, avocados, bananas, blueberries, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, lemons, lettuce, limes, oranges, pineapples, tofu, and tomatoes.


Amino Acids

Acids that combine to build proteins for growth and metabolism. There are 20, and your body makes about half naturally, while you obtain roughly half from food.

Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids you must get by eating food because your body cannot make them by itself.


As Many Reps As Possible (AMRAP)

See Set  Timed Set.



The bonding, or building, of nutrients and amino acids to create bigger structures, such as muscle tissue.
{adjective} Anabolic


Anaerobic Exercise

Exercises that require short bursts of energy and intensity and no oxygen because your muscles are contracting more quickly than oxygen is supplied to them. Your muscles instead use glycogen as energy for these kinds of exercises. Calisthenics, sprinting, weightlifting, and HIIT are some examples of anaerobic exercise.



A deficiency of hemoglobin often combined with a low number of red blood cells. In effect, your bodily tissues get deprived of sufficient oxygen, leaving you feeling weak and/or short of breath. An inadequate intake of nutrients and excessive bleeding are some typical causes of anemia.



A muscle that contracts and produces the force to perform an exercise.
{opposite} Agonist


Antagonistic Pair

A pair of muscles in which one muscle contracts as the other muscle relaxes.
{example} bicep and tricep; hamstring and quadricep



Located at the front.
{opposite} Posterior


Anterior Delts

See Delts.



Flavonoids that give blue, purple and red pigment to flowers, fruits, and vegetables. They are related to vitamin E and are thought to have antioxidant properties.



Your belief that you are going to have a great experience and a favorable outcome. It is having something to look forward to. Anytime you feel anticipation it puts pep in your step and makes it easy for you to act. It is the most desirable form of motivation.



Substances that help protect your body against the damage from free radicals. Your body can produce antioxidants, and you can obtain more from eating foods with vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, zinc, etc.


Ascorbic Acid (also called Vitamin C)

See Vitamin C.



An accumulation of plaque (fat, cholesterol, and cell waste) in the wall of your arteries, making them narrower and more rigid.


Atkins Diet

See Low-Carb Diet.



  1. The weakening of skeletal muscle, typically due to low or no use of the muscle.

  2. Damage to nerves, typically due to injuries, accidents, substance abuse and toxins.


Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

The amount of energy (calories) it takes for your body, at complete rest and with the digestive system inactive, to keep its vital organs functioning. Typically, BMR accounts for more than 60% of a person’s daily calorie expenditure, but it varies from person to person.


Biceps (also called Biceps Brachii)

The muscle located at the front of your arm and extending from your shoulder blade (i.e., scapula) to your elbow. It has a long outer head and a shorter inner head.



The proportion (%) of a substance your body absorbs and passes into the bloodstream so it can be used by your body.


Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) (also called Dysmorphophobia)

A mental disorder in which a person is obsessively worried or insecure about a perceived physical flaw that is minor or imaginary. Although the flaw, even if real, is not noticed much by other people, the sufferer of BDD is severely distressed by it, and their social interactions can be negatively affected.


Body Mass Index (BMI)

A measure of your body fat calculated from your height and weight to indicate generally whether your weight is healthy or not. However, if you are unusually muscular, your BMI could classify you as overweight or obese because muscle is much denser (heavier) than fat. The calculation is weight (kg) divided by height (m) squared, or kg/m2.


Bone Density (also called Bone Mineral Density, or BMD)

A measure of the mass and solidity of your bones based on the amount of minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus, they contain. Bone density is highest in your late 20s and naturally begins declining in your early 30s.

You can have your bone density checked by taking a bone mineral density test, which measures the amount of calcium hydroxyapatite (a form of calcium that accounts for two-thirds of bone weight) in your bones. The BMD test can alert you to the risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Osteopenia is the onset of low bone density, relative to the norm for your age, that’s a precursor to osteoporosis, which is a metabolic bone disease characterized by dangerously low bone density that can easily lead to fractures.


Boot Camp Training

A group training approach that employs calisthenics, such as pushups and squats, and aerobic exercises to increase your strength and stamina. It requires many rapid, intense movements and works well to burn calories.



When working out, it's your ability to rebound from fatigue, strain, discomfort, and exhaustion. In everyday life, it's your ability to overcome stress, setbacks, disappointments, and failures. Simply stated, bounce is your resilience.


Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale

See RPE.



A muscle that is mostly hidden beneath that your biceps. Through training, it can become visible on the side of your upper arm, making it appear wider when viewed from the front.



The outer layer of a cereal grain, such as rice, rye, oats, wheat, and corn. Whole grains have this layer, which gives you fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Bran is removed during the refining process for foods such as white bread and white flour.



A nervous system stimulant found in coffee, tea, etc. that can raise your heart rate and alertness and keep you awake. Caffeine may also make you urinate more frequently, causing dehydration and headaches.



You need this mineral to maintain strong bones and teeth. Calcium is found in foods such as almonds, broccoli, cheese, collard greens, dairy products, figs, sardines, seeds, and spinach. It is the most abundant mineral in your body.



A combination of muscles located on the back of your leg, below the knee and above the heel, that connect with the Achilles tendon. Some things you can do strengthen your calves are calf raises or sports that require you to jump a lot. 

The upper part of the calf, which is large and superficial.

The lower part of the calf, which is smaller and located beneath the gastrocnemius.



Exercises you perform using only your body weight as resistance. Most require a lot of movement and therefore will improve your mobility and burn a lot of calories. Jumping jacks, planks, pull-ups, push-ups, and squats are some examples.


Calorie (also called Kilocalorie)

A unit of energy equivalent to 4.18 kJ. The calorie content of food depends on the macronutrients that comprise it. Carbohydrates and protein both provide 4 calories per gram, and fat provides 9 calories per gram.


Carbohydrates (also called Carbs)

See Organic Compounds.


Cardiac Muscle Tissue

See Tissue ➡ Muscle Tissue.


Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF)

Refers to how efficiently your heart and lungs deliver oxygen to your skeletal muscles during exercise. It is typically based on your VO2 max (mL/kg/min). Aerobic exercises and running improve your CRF because they increase your heart rate and exercise your lungs. Having high CFR reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. It also increases your energy levels and reduces stress.



Bright yellow, orange, and red organic pigments produced in plants that provide vitamins and antioxidants when you eat them.



The break down, through digestion, of food into nutrients to supply energy to your body.
{adjective} Catabolic


Celiac disease

A hereditary disorder in which your body misidentifies gluten as a toxin and produces a severe autoimmune response that attacks the small intestine and produces symptoms such as bloating, stomach pain, diarrhea, fatigue, etc.


Central Obesity

Excess fat around the abdominal area, heart, and liver.



A mineral that works together with sodium and potassium to balance your body fluids and acid-base and is important for regulating your blood pressure. It also helps your muscles contract, ensure red blood cells exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide, and keeps your nervous system operating efficiently. You typically obtain chloride from table salt. Celery, eggs, lettuce, olives, rye, seaweed, and tomatoes are some good food sources of chloride.



A waxy substance produced by your liver and contained in your blood. Your liver produces all the cholesterol your body needs. LDL and HDL are the 2 types of cholesterol and having too much LDL will become harmful as it accumulates on the inner walls of your arteries, thereby restricting your blood flow and increasing the risk of a heart attack or stroke. Cholesterol is also found naturally in meat, eggs, poultry, dairy products, and shellfish.

High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol
Cholesterol that collects LDL from your arteries and returns it to your liver, which breaks it down and removes it from the body. A few ways to increase HDL are to exercise, lose weight, and refrain from smoking.

Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol
Cholesterol that can accumulate in your body, forming plaque. The plaque clings to the insides of your arteries, narrowing the passageway for blood flow. (See Atherosclerosis.) Processed foods, hot dogs, sausages, bacon, deli meats, red meat and dairy products are some typical foods that raise your LDL level.


Circuit Training

A sequence of different exercises performed consecutively and targeting different muscle groups, each for a set amount of time or repetitions, with short rest periods in between. A lot of stamina is required, and circuit training is good for people who are already fit and reasonably strong. It is a good training regime for weight loss and muscle-building.


Cluster Set

See Set.



A mineral your body uses to absorb and process vitamin B12 as well as iron. It also helps in the formation of hemoglobin. Some food sources are cabbage, figs, fish, legumes, liver, meat, mushrooms, mussels, oysters, and shellfish, spinach.



The mental processes for acquiring, accessing, and using knowledge. They include reasoning, intuition, thinking, imagining, judging, perceiving, remembering, etc.


Complementary Proteins

See Organic Compounds ➡ Proteins.


Complete Proteins

See Organic Compounds ➡ Proteins.


Complex Carbohydrates

See Organic Compounds ➡ Carbohydrates.


Compound Exercise

An exercise that requires you to engage multiple muscle groups to complete a rep.
{opposite} Isolation Exercise


Compound Set

See Set.


Concentric Contraction

See Isotonic Contraction.



A positive conviction, based on competence, you have about your abilities and resourcefulness. If not based in competence, then it is only bravado, which is merely a feigned display. Confidence can manifest as a strong presence, a calm demeanor, decisiveness, etc., depending on your personality. The best way to build it is by overcoming obstacles and achieving victories that accumulate and reinforcement your sense of accomplishment.


Connective Tissue

See Tissue.



Your body needs this mineral to form bones, connective tissue, enzymes, and red blood cells, and to absorb iron. It also helps maintain your immune system. You can get copper by eating foods such as apricots, bananas, crab, guavas, kiwi, lentils, leafy green vegetables, liver, lobster, mangos, mushrooms, nuts, oysters, pineapple, seeds, and soybeans.



The midsection of your body, which protects and stabilizes your spine. It also stabilizes your pelvis. The muscles in your core include the abdominal muscles, mid and lower back muscles, and pelvic floor, which is the base of it.



An amino acid found naturally in your muscle tissue that supplies energy for muscle contraction. Many athletes and body builders take creatine supplements to boost their strength.


Cross Fit

A training method that broadly comprises conditioning, weight training, and gymnastics. Full-body exercises are favored and it’s a very high-intensity approach to exercise intended to heavily fatigue you and build muscle.


Cross Training

The practice of variating your fitness regimen with exercises that are not part of your main sport or workout routine, for the purpose of maintaining total body fitness.


DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)

A diet that lowers your risk of high blood pressure by focusing on consuming plenty of potassium to promote a healthy heart while restricting your intake of sodium. While no foods are outlawed, so to speak, it is required that you prioritize eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. You need to limit your consumption of salt, red meat, dairy, saturated fat, and sugary foods and drinks. This means avoiding processed and pre-packaged foods as much as possible. Conversely, in addition to fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, you need to eat more beans, chicken, fish, legumes, nuts, seeds, and unsaturated oils. Dairy should be low-fat.


Deep Muscle

Muscle located further away from the surface of your body, making it more difficult to observe with the naked eye. Deep refers to the relative, or comparative, position of muscles.
{opposite} Superficial Muscle



A shortage of water in your body because you’re losing more fluid than you are taking in. Not drinking enough water, vomiting, diarrhea, and excessive sweating are some typical causes. Thirst is typically the first sign of dehydration. If left to fester, it can lead to fatigue, dizziness, headaches and poor concentration.


Delts (also called Deltoids)

A muscle group on your shoulders that helps move the arms up, down, forward, backward, and sideways.

Anterior Delts
The front facing part of the deltoid muscle. 

Lateral Delts (also called Intermediate Delts)
The side facing part of the deltoid muscle.

Posterior Delts
The rear facing part of the deltoid muscle.



A disease that occurs when your blood sugar is too high because your body can’t produce enough insulin, which converts sugar (glucose) into energy, or otherwise can’t effectively use it. Frequent urination, excessive thirst, and weight loss are some daily effects of diabetes. More serious complications include heart attacks, kidney failure, blindness, limb amputation, and depression. There 3 forms.

Type 1 Diabetes
This type less common than type 2 and occurs mostly among kids and teenagers. Since the body cannot produce insulin, treating it requires taking insulin every day.

Type 2 Diabetes
This type is the most common, and adults are overwhelming diagnosed with this form. It occurs in people who have developed resistance to insulin or don’t produce enough of it.

Gestational Diabetes
This type occurs during pregnancy among women who have never had diabetes. It usually goes away after childbirth, but still increases woman’s the risk of developing type 2 diabetes eventually. In addition, the child faces an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.


Dietary Fat

See Fat.



Your willpower to act, or otherwise maintain a certain state, despite inconvenience, constraints, or mood. It is indispensable for development of productive habits and consistency in your mindset and actions. (See Mindset.)



Any stress, struggle, or unpleasantness you perceive. Growing and improving yourself requires that you overcome it. In fact, there is typically no way to avoid some manner of discomfort if you’re working towards and ambitious goal.



Any unproductive, counterproductive, vacuous, or distressing event or activity that you devote excessive attention to and allow to rob you of time. The most insidious distractions (television, video games, social media, etc.) are those that seem harmless but hypnotize you for hours at a time. Although you can’t eliminate all distractions, being aware of how prevalent they are allows you to reallocate your attention and energy towards meaningful priorities in your life.



A substance, such as caffeine, that makes you discharge a greater volume of urine.


Drop Set

See Set.



See Intermittent Fasting.


Eccentric Contraction

See Isotonic Contraction.



See Somatotype.



Minerals that keep your balance of fluids at the right level for your brain to communicate properly with your organs and muscles. Potassium, chloride, sodium, calcium, and magnesium are electrolytes. You can obtain electrolytes by eating avocados, bananas, beans, potatoes, etc.



See Somatotype.



Your capacity for activity. Fat, protein, and carbohydrates you get from eating give you energy, and fat is more energy-dense than protein and carbohydrates.



Proteins that function as catalysts to accelerate chemical reactions in your body. You need them for digestion and building muscle among other things.


Epithelial Tissue

See Tissue.


Ergogenic Aid

A substance, such as creatine, or food you ingest to improve physical performance and recovery.


Essential Amino Acids

See Amino Acids.


Essential Fatty Acids

See Fatty Acids.


External Oblique

See Abdominal Muscles Oblique Muscles.


Extrinsic Muscle

A muscle that controls a part of your body but is located elsewhere. For example, muscles in your forearm control some of your finger movements, meaning they are extrinsic muscles.



The point at which at a muscle is too exhausted to perform another rep of an exercise until after you give it some time to rest and recover. The time required to recover some strength could be a few seconds to a few minutes depending on the muscle and your ability to recover.


Failure Set

See Set.



A story, idea, or assumption in your head, with little or no basis, that you latch onto and let hold you back from greatness. It’s powerful because you believe it, not because it’s true.


Fast-twitch Muscle Fibers (also called Type 2 Muscle Fibers)

Muscle fibers that contract quickly for a short duration to produce explosive movement. Jumping, for example, recruits fast-twist muscle fibers.



Greasy substances that constitute the adipose tissue of animals and humans and are also present in plants. It is the most energy-dense of the 3 macronutrients (carbohydrates, fat, and protein), and is used by your body for energy after being broken down into fatty acids. There are several types.

Dietary Fat
The fat you obtain by eating food.

Saturated Fats
These fats are widely considered to be less healthy, raise your LDL cholesterol level, and are associated with a higher risk of heart disease. They are solid at room temperature and are found in cheese, bacon, butter, cured meats, fatty meats, lard, and pastries.

Trans Fats
Unhealthy fats that increase your LDL cholesterol level and reduce your HDL level, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke, weight gain, and type 2 diabetes. They provide no health benefits to you and are solid at room temperature. You get them from eating commercial baked and processed foods, fried foods, ice cream, and margarine among other things.

Unsaturated Fats
These fats are widely considered to be healthier fats that improve your blood cholesterol levels. They are liquid at room temperature, and there are 2 types.

Monounsaturated Fats
Healthy fats that lower your LDL cholesterol. They are liquid at room temperature and harden when refrigerated, and you can obtain from foods such as avocados and nuts.

Polyunsaturated Fats
Healthy fats that reduce your LDL cholesterol levels and lower your risk of heart disease and stroke. You can obtain them from salmon, tuna, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.


Fatty Acids

Substances your body breaks down from fats and stores as energy. If your body doesn’t have glucose available to convert into energy, it will convert your fatty acids instead. Avocados, chia seeds, extra-virgin olive oil, seaweed, salmon, sardines, and walnuts are some good sources. There are 2 types.

Essential Fatty Acids
Unsaturated fatty acids you must get by eating food because your body cannot make them by itself.

Nonessential Fatty Acids
Amino acids that your body produces by itself, so you don’t need to acquire them by eating food.



A type of carbohydrate that your body can’t break down into glucose and digest. Fiber helps to regulate your hunger and blood sugar level. It also helps to prevent constipation, cancer, and heart disease. Some sources are cereals, fruit, legumes, rice, vegetables, and wholegrain breads. There are 3 types.

Soluble Fiber
Fiber that dissolves in water and helps lower your blood sugar levels and cholesterol. You can get it from foods such as apples, barley, blueberries, beans, chia seeds, lentils, nuts, oatmeal, rice, and vegetables.

Insoluble Fiber
Fiber that does not dissolve in water and prevents constipation by helping food move through your digestive system. You can get it from foods such as almonds, apples, bran, brown rice, brown rice, legumes, kale, pasta, pears, seeds, and walnuts.



Your capacity to handle the physical and mental rigors of life with energy and stamina. Your level of fitness depends on how much time and effort you devote to building and maintaining it. Exercising regularly, sleeping well, eating healthy foods, reading voraciously, meditating, and even laughing are some of the things you can do to build your physical and mental fitness.


Fitness Age (also called Health Age or Body Age)

A measure of how healthy you are biologically based on your lifestyle and resulting cardiorespiratory health. Some things you can control that affect your fitness age are exercise, diet, smoking, alcohol and drug use, and disposition (emotional outlook). Your fitness age can be quite different than your chronological age, which is merely how many years you’ve been alive. The lower your fitness age compared to your chronological age, the better your chance for longevity. On the other hand, a comparatively high fitness age increases your risk of dying prematurely.


Flavonoids (also called Vitamin P)

Flavonoids are water soluble plant pigments that fight off free radicals in your body and function as antioxidants. They also have antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. You can get from apples, berries, cherries, citrus fruits, onions, roots, soybeans, tea, leafy vegetables, and wine.



The bending of a limb or joint.


Flexitarian Diet

A diet that focuses heavily on eating fruits and vegetables but permits small amounts of meat and other animal-based foods when you get those cravings. You can basically eat anything you want, but fruits and vegetables should make up most of your diet, and ideally, you would regularly have meals that included no animal-based foods.



A naturally occurring mineral in water and many foods that helps you fight tooth decay by strengthening the outer layer (enamel) of your teeth against attack from sugar and acids. Apples, bananas, cherries, crab, grapes, peaches, potatoes, shrimp, spinach, and watermelons are some foods you can eat to obtain fluoride.



A weight training exercise in which you swing your arm in an arching motion while keeping your elbow locked at a particular angle. Fly exercises in which your arm swings forward against resistance work your chest and front delts. On the other hand, a reverse fly, in which you swing your arm backward against resistance will work your rear and lateral delts. You can perform flies with free weights or machines (including cable machines).


Folate (also called Vitamin B9 or Folic Acid)

Strictly speaking, “folate” refers to the various forms of folic acid, but the terms are frequently used interchangeably. See Vitamin B9.


Folic Acid (also called Vitamin B9 or Folate)

See Vitamin B9.


Food Allergy

An unusual reaction of your immune system to a protein in something you eat because it mistakenly identifies the protein as harmful. Symptoms of a food allergy can be diarrhea, difficulty breathing, eczema, hives, mouth and throat swelling, a rash, stomach cramps, and vomiting. Severe reactions might cause asthma and allergic shock.


Food Aversion

A strong dislike of certain foods that can weaken your appetite and make you feel nauseous or vomit.


Food Intolerance

Difficulty digesting a particular food, but without an immune response from your body. Some symptoms could be cramps, diarrhea, gas, headaches, irritability, muscle pain, nasal congestion, nausea, and upset stomach.



The addition of vitamins and minerals to a food to increase its nutritional value. An example is milk with vitamin D added.


Free Radical

An atom in your body that has an uneven number of electrons and is therefore unstable. As such, it searches for a stable atom in a healthy cell to steal an electron from and damages the healthy cell in the process. This pilfering of electrons creates more unstable atoms and can become a harmful chain reaction. Free radicals are formed naturally in the body as a byproduct of metabolic processes, but are also caused by exposure to air pollutants, cigarette smoke, industrial chemicals, ozone, and x-rays. They damage tissue and make you age faster. They also contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Antioxidants protect you against free radicals because they can donate an electron to stabilize the free radical and block the chain reaction.



A water-soluble sugar found naturally in fruit and honey.


Functional Fitness

A method of training that focusing on improving your balance and coordination, as well as conditioning muscle groups you use for everyday activities. The objective is to ensure the mundane tasks of life are easy for you to do. Functional training consists of body weight exercises such as squats, pushing, and pulling, and some weight training. However, it is not geared towards building exceptional strength or isolating and developing big muscles.



A simple sugar found in milk with a slightly different organization of atoms than lactose, which is the other simple sugar found in milk. Galactose is considered to be a carbohydrate.



See Calf.



The embryo of a grain that germinates and grows into a plant. It is rich in protein, good fats, minerals, vitamin E and B vitamins.


German Volume Training (GVT)

A training technique where you perform 10 sets of 10 reps at moderate weight (no more than 60% of your one-rep max) with an emphasis on slowing down the eccentric contraction of each rep.


Gestational Diabetes

See Diabetes.


Ghrelin (also called Lenomorelin)

A hormone your stomach produces and sends to the brain to signal that you’re hungry. As such, dieting tends to increase your ghrelin levels, which then increase your cravings, thereby making it a challenge to keep your weight down. Stress also causes the release of ghrelin, which contributes to eating as a coping mechanism. To suppress ghrelin production, you can eat more protein and fiber, which both make you feel full for longer. High intensity workouts that build muscle also suppress your ghrelin levels.


Giant Set

See Set.


Glucose (also called Blood Sugar)

Glucose is a simple sugar derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates. Glucose is the main source of fuel for your body, particularly the brain, and the main kind of sugar in your blood.



A protein in wheat, rye, barley, and triticale (a hybrid of rye and wheat) that makes dough sticky and binds food together. Some people, particularly those with celiac disease, need to avoid consuming gluten because their immune system reacts to it as a toxin, leading to gastrointestinal problems.


Gluten-free Diet

A diet that excludes foods containing gluten and is particularly beneficial to those with celiac disease. Processed foods and drinks are likely to contain gluten and should generally be avoided unless they are labeled as gluten-free. Due to the avoidance of processed foods, a positive side effect of this diet can be weight loss. On the other hand, this diet allows you to eat a wide range of unprocessed foods, such as cheese, corn, eggs, fish, fruit, legumes, meat, milk, nuts, poultry, rice, seeds, etc.


Glutes (also called Gluteal Muscles)

These are your butt muscles, which are located on the back of your hip, and they are important for moving your legs and doing leg exercises. There are 3 main and 6 smaller ones. 

Gluteus Maximus
A large superficial muscle that gives your butt its visible shape. You use this muscle to move your legs back, rotate them externally, as well as stand upright. All the other gluteal muscles are located beneath this muscle.

Gluteus Medius
A muscle located on top of the gluteus minimus. It works with the gluteus minimus to rotate inward and raise (abduct) your leg to the side and keep you balanced when walking.

Gluteus Minimus
A muscle located under gluteus medius. It works with the gluteus medius to rotate inward and raise (abduct) your leg to the side and keep you balanced when walking.

Lateral Rotator Group
6 muscles in your pelvic area that are located beneath the 3 main muscles and rotate your thigh bone (femur) outward (laterally).


Gluteus Maximus

See Glutes.


Gluteus Medius

See Glutes.


Gluteus Minimus

See Glutes.


Glycemic Index (GI)

A system of classifying foods that are carbohydrates based on how they quickly they are digested, absorbed into your body, and affect your blood sugar levels. GI ranks foods as either low, medium, or high on a scale from 1 to 100. 55 or less is considered low, which means that a food digests slowly and makes you feel full for a longer time, which in turn prevents overeating and helps maintain a steadier blood sugar level. 56 to 69 is medium, and 70 or more is high. Foods with a high GI will spike your blood sugar levels. Some foods with low GI are avocado, barley, broccoli, chickpeas, kidney beans, legumes, lentils, and raw carrots. On the other hand, fast food, pastries, processed foods, sugary beverages, and white bread are some typical high GI foods.


Glycemic Load (GL)

An indication of the expected effect on blood sugar levels when you eat a carbohydrate in its typical serving size. GL includes GI (glycemic index) as one of its contributing factors and is considered to be a better indicator of a food’s impact on blood sugar levels than GI alone. It is calculated as follows:

GL = GI x available carbs in a serving (g) ÷ 100.

A result of 10 or less is low, 11 to 19 is moderate, and 20 or more is high. Many foods, such as fruits and vegetables, with a high GI turn out to have a low GL once expected portion sizes are taken into consideration.



Molecules in your body that are formed from unused glucose and stored in your liver and around muscles. When your body needs energy, it can readily convert glycogen into it.



A unit of measurement for mass or weight that is one thousandth of a kilogram and used to indicate nutritional values for nutrients.



A group of muscles on the back of your thigh. You use them to bend your knees so you can climb, walk, and squat. Hamstring injuries are very common in sports.

Biceps Femoris
A long, superficial muscle along your outer thigh that attaches to your tibia (shin bone) and enables you   to bend your knee and rotate your lower leg. 

A broad muscle that runs along your pelvis to your upper tibia (shin bone) and enables you to stretch your thigh, rotate your hip and bend your knee.

The longest hamstring muscle, which runs between the biceps femoris and semimembranosus and connects to your tibia (shin bone), and enables you to stretch your thigh, rotate your hip and bend your knee.



  1. Unwilling to get out of your own way when a path forward or solution is readily apparent and available.

  2. Prone to buying into falsehoods. (See Falsehood.)



A bundle of muscles.



A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout your body and transports carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Hemoglobin gives your blood its red color. Insufficient iron in the diet is the most typical cause of low hemoglobin, which can cause fatigue, headaches, pale skin, and shortness of breath. Alcoholic beverages, cocoa, coffee, and tea are some foods that block iron absorption in your body, and you should limit intake of these foods if you have low hemoglobin. On the other hand, some foods you can eat to get more iron are apples, apricots, bananas, broccoli, celery, dates, figs, raisins, spinach, and watermelons.


High-density Lipoprotein (HDL)

See Cholesterol.


HIIT (High-Intensity Interval Training)

A cardio workout based on short but intense bursts of exercise with brief breaks in between until you are too exhausted to continue. The point is to maintain a consistent level of intensity throughout the entire workout, which means that as your body fatigues you are permitted to reduce the duration of a set or the number of reps if necessary. A session should last no more than 30 minutes and provides excellent cardio. It is also very effective for weight loss and muscle development. In fact, HIIT is a good training method for diabetics because it increases the body’s metabolism of glucose.



  1. An irrepressible drive to accomplish your goal or manifest your dream. It is the most potent form of motivation because it drives you to persist despite doubts, failures, rejections, setbacks, or seemingly insurmountable odds. It is the inner force that compels you to prepare for opportunities before they reveal themselves.

  2. A craving or compelling need to eat something.


Hydrogenated Oil

Liquid, unsaturated oil (fat) that has had hydrogen added to make it solid or spreadable. This is essentially how trans fats are made, and margarine, for example, is produce in this way. Hydrogenated oils are used in the food industry to makes sweets, biscuits, and other processed foods because it increases their shelf life.



A condition where your blood sugar, or glucose, is too high. Usually, it occurs because your body doesn’t produce enough insulin or is insulin resistant. It is associated with diabetes and prediabetes. Some ways to prevent hyperglycemia are by exercising, eating fewer carbs (which break down into glucose when you eat them), eating more fiber, and drinking plenty of water (which purges excess glucose when you urinate), among other methods.



Growth in the size of your muscles.



Incapable of being dissolved or liquefied.
{opposite} Soluble


Insoluble Fiber

See Fiber.



A hormone produced in the pancreas that regulates your blood sugar level. When your blood sugar rises, insulin gets released and triggers cells in your body to absorb the sugar and use it for energy. When your blood contains too much sugar, insulin triggers your body to store the excess sugar in your liver until your blood sugar level falls.


Intermittent Fasting

A method of eating in cycles that restricts when you eat rather what you eat, typically for the purpose of calorie restriction leading to weight loss. This occurs because your body is forced to burn fat reserves for energy while you are fasting since there is no glucose available to burn. Some other benefits may include improved insulin resistance and increased metabolism among other things. There are many different fasting methods, and a few are described below. 

16:8 Diet (also called 16:8 Fasting)
A version of intermittent fasting where you eat during an 8-hour window of the day and abstain from eating, except for drinking water or other non-caloric beverages, during the other 16 hours. One advantage of this diet is that you can eat anything and as much you want during the 8-hour window. However, it may be difficult consume a full day’s worth calories within such a short time span. As such, this diet can be effective in helping you lose weight. 

5:2 Diet
A version of intermittent fasting where you eat as normal for 5 days and restrict your calorie intake the other 2 days of the week. You need to have at least one normal between your fasting days. Your calorie intake on a normal day would be 2,000~2,500 calories, whereas on a day of fasting it is restricted to 500~600 calories. Women should fall towards the lower end of those calorie ranges, while men would fall towards the upper end. On fasting days, emphasizing high-fiber foods make sense because they prolong the feeling of being full. The main emotional benefit of this diet is that it allows you to eat without restrictions for 5 out 7 days per week. However, normal eating should not include binging on processed and junk foods. This diet can help you reduce insulin levels, lose weight, and retain muscle mass despite the fasting aspect of it.

A version of intermittent fasting where you fast 24 hours two times per week. When not fasting, you can eat whatever you want, but while fasting, you can only drink water or some other non-caloric beverage and are not supposed to consume any food. As with intermittent fasting in general, the    objective is to create a calorie deficit leading to weight loss. Children, pregnant or nursing women, and diabetics should not try this diet.

Warrior Diet
A strict version of intermittent fasting where you have a 4-hour window, typically dinnertime, to feast and a 20-hour window of fasting, during which a very modest intake of fruit and nuts is permissible. Foods that are highly processed or high in refined sugar content and salt should be avoided, but since there is only a 4-hour window to feast, this diet may generate a huge craving for precisely those kinds of foods. It is also quite difficult to maintain the warrior diet over the long term because many social gatherings revolve around food and drinks and create a strong temptation to break the fasting cycle. Nevertheless, this diet can aid in weight loss and may have anti-inflammatory benefits. Children, pregnant or nursing women, and those with type 1 diabetes should not try this diet.


Internal Oblique

See Abdominal Muscles  Oblique Muscles.


Intrinsic Muscle

A muscle that is located within the part of the body it controls.



A mineral your body uses to produce thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism. You can eat cheese, cod, cranberries, eggs, milk, potatoes, prunes, seaweed, shrimp, tuna, and turkey among other foods to get it.



A mineral your body needs to make hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron helps create healthy blood and transports oxygen in your body. You can get iron from food such as beans, beef, cereals, clams, green leafy vegetables, lentils, liver, nuts, seeds, and wholegrain breads.


Isolation Exercise

An exercise where you focus on engaging a single muscle group.
{opposite} Compound Exercise


Isometric Contraction

Muscle tension generated while you hold a weight in place (in other words, while not flexing your muscles concentrically or eccentrically) and under tension for several seconds. This kind of contraction can indicate whether a given amount of weight is too heavy for you to handle with proper form and control. Basically, they are contractions that help you maintain posture. Gripping with your hands is also considered an isometric contraction.


Isotonic Contraction

Either a concentric or eccentric contraction that maintains constant tension in your muscle while the length of the muscle changes.

Concentric Contraction
The shortening or squeezing of a muscle while it is under tension. For example, the curling (squeezing) motion during a bicep curl is concentric.
{opposite} Eccentric Contraction

Eccentric Contraction
The lengthening of a muscle while it is under tension. For example, the lowering (elongating) motion during a bicep curl is eccentric.
{opposite} Concentric Contraction



The extractable liquid in fruits, vegetables, and meat. 100% fruit juices retain the same vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients (plant chemicals) of whole fruits. However, the sugar in fruit juices is more concentrated than in whole fruits, and fruit juices contain much less fiber than whole fruits.


Ketogenic Diet

See Low-Carb Diet.



A state when your body is breaking down fat and protein for energy instead of glucose because your blood sugar level is low. The low blood sugar level occurs when your intake of carbs is extremely restricted.


Kilojoule (kJ)

A standard unit of energy measurement equal to one thousand joules. One gram of fat contains 37 kJ, and one gram of protein or one gram of carbohydrates contains 17 kJ. 1 kJ is equivalent to 0.239 calorie.


Lacto Vegetarian

See Vegetarian.


Lacto-ovo Vegetarian

See Vegetarian.



The natural sugar in milk. It is made of glucose and galactose.


Lateral Delts

See Delts.


Lateral Rotator Group

See Glutes.


Lats (also called Latissimus Dorsi Muscles)

A pair of large superficial muscles, which are widest on your body. They connect to your armpits and cover the middle of your back all the way down to your waist. Viewed side by side, they form a V shape. Some exercises that strengthen and widen your lats are pullups, lat pull-downs, and rows.



A family of plants that includes beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, and soybeans. Strictly speaking, a legume comprises the leaves, pods, and stem of a plant, rather than simply bean or seed. They are full of fiber and an abundant source of protein in plant-based diets. They have little fat, no sodium, and no cholesterol.



A hormone produced by fat cells that signals to the brain that you're full and it's time to stop eating. The higher your body fat, the lower your leptin levels will be. However, some people, especially those who are obese, may have leptin resistance. Low and moderate intensity cardio exercises tend to reduce your leptin levels, leading you to eat more, whereas high intensity exercises produce the opposite effect.



An essential amino acid that helps repair and build your muscles. Many body builders and athletes take leucine supplements to build muscle mass. You can also get it naturally from foods such as beans, beef, chicken, pork, seafood, soybeans, etc.



Fibrous tissue that typically connects two bones or cartilages and stabilize joints. As such, ligaments prevent the dislocation and twisting of bones. Some ligaments, rather than connecting bones, connect organs, such as in the abdominal cavity. Ligaments can be sprained or ruptured if stretched too far.



A written record of every exercise you do during a workout. Keeping a log allows you to confirm your progress over a long span of time and document your personal bests. It should include details such as the number of sets, number of reps per set, amount of weight, grip direction, duration, and any other metrics you want to track.


Lower Trapezius

See Traps. 


Low-Carb Diet

A diet that aims to achieve weight loss by eating fats and protein liberally while limiting carbs. The objective is to reduce your appetite and force your body to produce energy from mainly by burning fats (i.e., lipids) instead of sugars. In fact, a low-carb diet can be very effective in reducing belly fat. People on these kinds of diets may experience other benefits such as improved blood pressure, blood sugar and HDL cholesterol levels, which can reduce the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease. 

Atkins Diet
This diet severely restricts your consumption carbs at the outset, but allows you gradually increase your carb intake in phases thereafter. While still restrictive, it is more permissive of carb intake than a ketogenic diet is. In addition to plenty of protein such as chicken and meat, low-carb leafy greens are favored. Eventually, modest amounts of foods such as apples, asparagus, avocados, berries, broccoli, carrots, cheese, citrus fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds can be enjoyed. However, fruits that are high in sugar, pastries, and soft drinks are to be avoided.

Ketogenic Diet
An extremely low-carb diet focused on losing weight by obtaining (or burning) calories mainly from fat and protein. This diet emphasizes the consumption of fats, which should be about two-thirds of your nutrient intake, and moderate intake of protein. Vegetables should be non-starchy. You can eat foods such as avocados, bell peppers, berries, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, cheese, coconut oil, eggs, lettuce, meat, nuts, olive oil, poultry, seafood, seeds, spinach, yogurt, and zucchini. However, bread, cereal, pasta, most fruits, and sugar should be shunned.

South Beach Diet
Like the Atkins Diet, the first phase of this diet drastically cuts your consumption of carbohydrates and then reintroduces them in modest amounts during the second phase, which is when you focus on losing weight. The third and final phase focuses on maintaining the lifestyle, which ideally includes regular exercise, for the rest of your life, but allows you to occasionally indulge in any food you like. This diet is more restrictive of saturated fats, and more permissive of high-fiber fruits and whole grains, than the Atkins diet. You can have plenty of low GCI carbs, lean meat and protein, and unsaturated fats. From the second phase onward, you can regularly enjoy foods such as most fruits and vegetables, avocado oil, beef, eggs, fish, lamb, legumes, low-fat milk, nuts, olive oil, pork, poultry, seeds, shellfish, etc. However, refined flour and sugar (including sugary drinks) and non-starchy vegetables such as carrots, corn, and peas are to be avoided.


Low-density Lipoprotein (LDL)

See Cholesterol.



See Minerals.



See Nutrients.



A mineral your body needs for many reasons, including to maintain good blood sugar levels, bones, muscles, nerves, and metabolic processes, regulate blood pressure, and making energy and protein. It also helps your brain, nervous system, and metabolism function properly. Beans, brown rice, figs, mackerel, nuts, peanut butter, seeds, soybeans, spinach, and yogurt are some good sources.



You need this mineral to fight free radicals, form bones and connective tissue, and produce sex hormones. A mineral Brown rice, nuts, peanut butter, pineapple, seeds, soybeans, spinach, and whole grains.


Mediterranean Diet

A diet whose main benefit is keeping you healthy in the first place so your risk of developing chronic conditions such as diabetes and heart disease is mitigated. Beans, extra virgin olive oil, fruit, nuts, seeds, vegetables, and whole grains are mainstays of the diet. Eggs and dairy products are OK in moderation. In terms of animal proteins, meat consumption is allowed but not favored, and processed meats are a no-no. Modest portions of poultry and seafood are preferred. Processed foods, butter, and excessive salt and sugar are shunned. Alcoholic beverages other than red wine are to be avoided.



See Somatotype.


Metabolic Syndrome

A combination of conditions, including high blood pressure, insulin resistance, obesity (particularly excessive fat around the waist), high LDL (bad cholesterol), and high triglyceride levels, that substantially raise your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, stroke, and coronary heart disease. You can prevent metabolic syndrome by exercising regularly, eating fruits, vegetables, and other foods that are not so salty and contain little saturated fat, keeping your weight in check, and not smoking.



Chemical reactions that occur in the cells of your body that turn food into energy and produce materials to keep cells alive, healthy, and reproductive.


Micrograms (ug)

One millionth of a gram, it is a measurement used in nutritional values for nutrients.



See Nutrients.


Middle Trapezius

See Traps.



A little checkpoint on the way to a larger goal. Every milestone you reach builds your confidence and resilience.


Milligrams (mg)

One thousandth of a gram, it is a measurement used in nutritional values for nutrients.


Mindset (also called State of Mind, Frame of Mind, and Mentality)

Your disposition, which is based on your mood, inclinations, level of maturity, and ethics. Your mindset tends to be consistent over time. However, compared to your paradigm, which is based more on deeply ingrained expectations, it can more easily adapt to situations and circumstances. (See Paradigm.) In terms of physical fitness, it is vital to adopt and maintain a mindset that aligns with your desire to stay in shape. When your mindset and desire are misaligned, then the desire will go unfulfilled because your behaviors will be self-sabotaging. 

Developing a certain mindset requires that you intentionally and repeatedly expose yourself to an idea, emotion, thought process, or manner of action with the goal of adopting it and making it habitual. If you then meld your mindset to your identity, which is your sense of self, it results in a change in your paradigm. 



Naturally occurring solid chemical compounds and elements that are inorganic, they keep your brain, heart, and muscles functioning properly. You also need them to form bones and teeth and to produce hormones and enzymes. Your body needs only small amounts of minerals, which you get from food.

Minerals your body needs more of compared to trace minerals. They include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur.

Trace Minerals
Minerals your body needs a tiny amount of. They include cobalt, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc.



These cell organelles are responsible for breaking down nutrients from food you eat and generating energy to carry out a cell’s biochemical reactions by producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is basically a molecule of energy. The cells in organs that require a lot of energy, such as muscles and the liver, have a relatively high quantity of mitochondria. Mitochondria also control metabolic processes in a cell and promote cell repair, growth, and death.
(singular: mitochondrion)


Monounsaturated Fats

See Fat ➡ Dietary Fat ➡ Unsaturated Fats.



Any reason, impulse or emotion, whether positive or negative, that makes you act. If your motivation wanes, you must rely on discipline to stay on track.



To act rather than stagnate. Movement is a principle. Whether it’s fitness or any other aspiration you have, there won’t be any discernible or measurable progress until you move. Moving generates momentum for you to defy the gravitational pull towards mediocrity. This means that you must resist the ideas of Can’t and Too, as they prevent you from moving. Since you cannot know everything ahead of time, no matter how much research you do, choose a path and get moving. You can gain insights, learn lessons, and correct your course as you progress.


Muscle Protein Breakdown (MPB)

This is the process of muscle degradation, or muscle loss, which breaks proteins down into the amino acids they’re made of during intense exercise, particularly when it involves resistance training such as weightlifting. But during exercise, MPB also stimulates a natural, counteracting metabolic process called muscle protein synthesis (MPS), which creates new proteins to repair the damaged muscles. Intense exercise always stimulates more MPS than MPB, resulting in muscle growth, or hypertrophy. (See Net Muscle Protein Balance.) As such, MPB is an essential part of muscle adaptation to training and building muscle mass.
{opposite} Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS)


Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS)

This metabolic process creates new proteins to repair muscles damaged during intense exercise. It is a naturally occurring response to muscle protein breakdown (MPB), which occurs when you lose protein while working out. As such, MPB must occur before MPS can. (See Net Muscle Protein Balance.Consuming protein after an intense workout feeds MPS by providing a source of amino acids that bind to your skeletal muscle proteins to drive hypertrophy, which is an increase in the size of your muscles. The hypertrophic effects of MPS are generally not visible from one training session to the next, meaning you must train consistently over a period of weeks or months before changes in muscle mass become noticeable to the naked eye.
{opposite} Muscle Protein Breakdown (MPB)


Muscle Tissue

See Tissue.



A protein that provides oxygen to your heart and skeletal muscles, which are the muscles attached to your bones and tendons.


Nervous Tissue

See Tissue.


Net Muscle Protein Balance (NBAL)

This is the balance of muscle protein breakdown (MPB) and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) that results from your physical activity. When your MPS and MPB balance out, you’re simply in a state of homeostasis, or equilibrium, meaning that you’re neither gaining nor losing muscle mass. After you train intensely, your body creates new muscle proteins at a faster rate than existing muscle proteins degraded during training, and the result is muscle growth (i.e., hypertrophy). Muscle growth, therefore, is the byproduct of a positive NBAL, while muscle loss indicates a negative NBAL. In terms of diet, the combination of consuming protein, which aids muscle protein synthesis, and carbohydrates, which inhibit muscle protein breakdown, will increase your NBAL and encourage growth in muscle mass.



Having a tendency to affect, attack, or be attracted to nerve tissue or cells.


Neurotropic Vitamins

The three B vitamins, including B1, B6, and B12 that keep your nerves healthy. B1 provides energy to nerves, B6 helps to produce neurotransmitters, which carry signals from your brain to all the cells in your body, and B12 repairs damaged nerves and regenerates nerve fibers.



See Vitamin B3.


Nonessential Fatty Acids

See Fatty Acids.



Nutrients are substances such as carbohydrates, fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and water your body gets from food and uses for physiological processes.

Nutrients your body needs in large quantities. They include carbohydrates, protein, and fat.

Nutrients your body needs in small quantities. They include vitamins and minerals.


Oblique Muscles

See Abdominal Muscles.


One-rep Max (1RM)

The heaviest weight or maximum resistance at which you can complete one rep of an exercise. If you can perform two consecutive reps with no rest in between, it means your one-rep max must be higher.



A specialized part of a cell that fulfills a particular function. Some examples are the nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes.


Organic Compounds

Chemical compounds (i.e., substance made of at least two elements) containing carbon that make living organisms. There are 4 types.

Carbohydrates (also called Carbs)
Made of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, they are sugars, starches, and dietary fiber, and the most quickly converted sources of energy. They are one of the 3 macronutrients, along with fat and protein, and you can get them from rice, bread, cereal, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Refined carbs such as white rice, white bread, pasta, and pastries, can spike your blood sugar level because their fiber content has been stripped. Brown and wild rice are healthier carbs than white rice because they contain plenty of fiber.

Complex Carbohydrates
Nutrients with plenty of fiber that digest slowly and aid in controlling your appetite. They also suppress your blood sugar levels after eating, which helps reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Some food sources of complex carbs are apples, bananas, beans, berries, broccoli, carrots, spinach, and whole grains.
Simple Carbohydrates
Nutrients high in sugar that your body absorbs into the blood stream fast to provide instant energy that also tends to fade quickly. Simple carbs, such corn syrup, juice concentrate, and sugar, are typically added to foods and are much less nutritious than complex carbs.

(also called Triglycerides)
Fats, hormones, oils, and waxes that are insoluble in water and stored in your body’s adipose tissue. They come from the food you consume and are the most common type of fat in your blood. They are a vital store of energy, act as chemical messengers, maintain your body temperature, and regulate hormones. However, if your triglyceride levels become too high, they can narrow your arteries and increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, pancreatitis (swelling of the pancreas), and liver disease.

Nucleic Acids
Molecules that store genomic information and provide instruction for cells functions. There are 2 main types.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A double-stranded molecule that carries the genetic information of an organism and can replicate itself. DNA, as opposed to RNA, never leaves the cell nucleus.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A single-stranded molecule that converts the genetic information of DNA into proteins and cannot replicate itself.
Substances made from a combination of amino acids. Your body’s cells, tissue, hormones, antibodies, and enzymes are made of proteins. Your body needs the amino acids of protein to build and repair muscle and bones. Some sources of abundant protein are apricots, asparagus, avocados, bananas, broccoli, cantaloupe, chicken, eggs, guava, kiwi, lentils, peas, soy and baked beans, peanut butter, nuts, eggs, cheese, lean beef, milk, peaches, poultry, potatoes, raspberries, salmon, spinach, tuna, and wholegrains among others.

Complementary Proteins
Proteins from different foods that complement each other and combine to supply all the essential amino acids.

Complete Proteins
Foods that have all the essential amino acids that your body cannot produce on its own. Animal proteins such as meat, fish, poultry, and eggs are complete proteins, while beans, nuts and vegetables are not.


Ovo Vegetarian

See Vegetarian.


Paleo Diet (also called Cavemen Diet or Stone Age Diet)

A diet intended to mimic ancient hunter-gatherer diets from the Paleolithic period, which ended about 10,000 years ago. The premise is that our genetics are not adapted to consume foods that became available after that period, and those foods are the culprit behind many modern health afflictions. As such, consumption of foods that became available after humans starting farming is restricted in favor of foods that could be hunted and picked from the natural environment. Fruit, lean meats (including game), fish, nuts, seeds, shellfish, and vegetables mainstays of this diet. Furthermore, low-glycemic foods are favored since they keep you feeling full longer and mitigate the urge to overeat. Carb intake is generally low. Alcohol, cereals, coffee, dairy products, grains, legumes, processed foods, refined sugar, refined vegetable oils, and salt are to be avoided. This diet may improve your cholesterol levels, decrease blood pressure, increase insulin sensitivity, and help you lose weight.



An organ in your digestive system, located behind the stomach, that produces enzymes to digest food and hormones to regulate your blood sugar level and appetite.



Underlying beliefs that have a greater influence on your actions than your conscious thoughts do. It is the mindset melded to your identity. (See Mindset.) Your paradigm drives patterns of behavior (i.e., habits) that are either consistent with or in opposition to your aspirations and objectives. It is established by the beliefs, teachings and habits of your parents or guardians from the time of your infancy and requires self-awareness and reflection together with diligent study and enlightenment of your mindset if you wish to change it.



The mental faculty that underlies your other mental faculties of persistence (or perseverance), commitment, and discipline. It is an awareness that some results take time to manifest and a willingness to let a process take its natural course.


Pecs (also called Pectoral Muscles)

The muscles that form your chest.

Pectoralis Major
The larger of your pec muscles, it is superficial and covers most of your chest. It runs from your sternum (i.e., breastbone) to your shoulder.

Pectoralis Minor
A smaller muscle that lies beneath the pectoralis major and cannot be seen. It attaches to your shoulder   blade and connects diagonally to several of your upper ribs.


Pelvic Floor (also called Pelvic Diaphragm)

A cone-shaped structure, including ligaments, muscles, nerves, and tissue, located at the base of your pelvic cavity. The muscles in this structure allow both men and women to engage in sexual intercourse, urinate, pass gas, and move the bowels.



High energy and enthusiasm for truly living your life, aspiring, and achieving more.


pH (Potential of Hydrogen)

A measurement from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of something. 7 is neutral, lower than 7 is acidic, and higher than 7 is alkaline. Your blood’s pH level should be 7.35~7.45 to be considered normal.



A mineral your body needs to build healthy bones and teeth. After calcium, it is the second most prevalent mineral in your body. In fact, phosphorus and calcium work together to build bones. All living organisms require phosphorus for their existence, so it is contained in most of the food you eat. Asparagus, beets, broccoli, beef, celery, eggs, mushrooms, onions, oysters, pumpkin seeds, radishes, salmon, sesame seeds, tomatoes, turkey, and whole-wheat bread are some good sources.



A core-strengthening workout, using only body weight, based on deep breathing and precisely controlled movements without a lot of repetitions. The approach is similar to yoga but more focused on producing physical improvements. The objective is to establish a strong mind-body connection and build better posture, flexibility, and muscle definition in your core and limbs. Pilates is a common workout approach among dancers and can be performed on a mat or using dedicated workout equipment.


Plant-based Diet

A diet based mainly on fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and healthy oils. Fish, meat, and poultry can be consumed in small amounts. Artificially sweetened beverages, processed foods and snacks, and refined grains such as white bread are avoided. People who adopt this diet typically do so for reasons related to health and longevity.


Plant Sterols

Substances that are similar to cholesterol and found naturally fruits, grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. They decrease your levels of LDL (bad cholesterol) by partially blocking it he absorption of cholesterol from your intestines into the body so that it gets removed from your body through bowel movements.



A training method used typically by athletes and martial artists that emphasizes quickly alternating concentric and eccentric movements with the shortest possible rest period in between. (The rest period is called "amortization.") The objective is to improve competitiveness by developing agility, balance, muscle memory, speed, and power through explosive movements.


Polyunsaturated Fats

See Fat ➡ Dietary Fat ➡ Unsaturated Fats.



Located at the back.
{opposite} Anterior


Posterior Delts

See Delts.



A mineral that helps keep proper fluid levels inside your body’s cells. It works together with sodium, which maintains good fluid levels outside of cells, to keep the right balance of water and acidity in your blood. It also helps nerve function and contract your muscles. You can get potassium by eating avocados, bananas, broccoli, cantaloupe, cucumbers, grain foods, grapefruit, meat, milk, mushrooms, oranges, peas, potatoes, salmon, spinach, sweet potatoes, zucchini, etc.



See Organic Compounds.



See Vitamin B6.


Quadriceps (also called Quads, Quadriceps Femoris, and Quadriceps Extensor)

A large group of leg muscles located above you knee at the front and side of your thigh. You use your quads to straighten your legs from a bent knee position. Some exercises that will strengthen your quads are leg extensions, lunges, and squats. Football (soccer) and running are good sports to play for strong quads. 

Rectus Femoris
The muscle roughly in the middle of your thigh that starts at the hip and attaches to the knee.

Vastus Intermedius
The muscle between the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis and beneath the rectus femoris.

Vastus Lateralis
The muscle along the outside of your thigh, and the largest quad muscle.

Vastus Medialis
The muscle along inside of your thigh.


Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE)

An arbitrary measure of how intensely you’re exercising, rated from 1 (lowest intensity) to 10 (highest intensity). Essentially, it’s a rating of your level of fatigue and how difficult it is to breathe. (Gunnar Borg’s original scale, called the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale, was from 6 to 20 and based on a person’s actual heart rate, making it a more objective measure.) 1 to 3 is easy activity in which you can breathe normally. 4 to 6 is moderate activity, with slightly labored but still comfortable breathing. 7 to 9 is intense activity where you’re short of breath. 10 is maximum exertion where you’re out of breath and can’t go on any longer. Again, RPE is an arbitrary measure, so a level of activity that feels like 8 to you may feel more or less intense to someone else.


Rectus Femoris

See Quadriceps.



The process of stripping foods of their fiber and nutritional value. Some examples of refined foods are white bread and white sugar.



The comparative advancement of you versus someone else based on your habits of movement and the speed at which you move. The nature of relativity is paradoxical: the more and faster you move, the slower time elapses for you compared to someone who is not moving at all or moving much less and/or slower. This is why you, being proactive about your fitness, can be physically and mentally years younger than your chronological age, while others who are lazy and sedentary can be years older than their chronological age. (See Fitness Age.) In effect, you slow the passage of time biologically, or age less quickly, because you move more and faster than others. This effect can be likened to the phenomenon of time dilation, which was first proposed by Dr. Albert Einstein as part of his special theory of relativity.


Rep (also called Repetition)

A single cycle, meaning one time from start to end, of an exercise. Multiple reps of an exercise make a set. (See Set.)


Resistant Starch

See Fiber.



A pair of superficial muscles on either side of your spine that run diagonally and are located below your neck in the middle of your upper back. Even though they are superficial, they are located deep to the traps, and it is difficult to see them if your back is not visibly muscular. There are 2 rhomboid muscles.

Rhomboid Major
The larger of the two rhomboids, it is located directly beneath the rhomboid minor.

Rhomboid Minor
The smaller of the two rhomboids, it is located above (i.e., closer to your shoulders) the rhomboid major.



See Vitamin B2.



The total number of sets performed of a single exercise during a complete workout session. For example, 1 round of biceps curls could be 6 sets of 10 reps (60 reps total for the round). If you next begin doing squats, then that would be starting a new round. Multiple supersets performed successively can also be considered a round.



A compound weight training exercise where you flex your elbows and pull your arms inward towards your torso or upward towards your shoulders. Bending your upper body forward and pulling your arms inward will primarily target your back muscles and work your lats, rhomboids, traps and biceps. Performing seated rows, by sitting with your feet planted and pulling your arms inward, will engage your leg muscles and glutes as well. Upright rows, where you stand upright and pull your arms up, will primarily target your shoulder muscles and work your delts, traps and biceps.



A natural weakening of your muscle tissue and strength as you age, to the point that it negatively affects your mobility and/or balance. It usually begins in early middle age and is caused by a sedentary lifestyle, i.e., habitual inactivity. The way to counteract sarcopenia is by exercising regularly and incorporating strength training.


Saturated Fats

See Fat ➡ Dietary Fat.



  1. In the habit of sitting or being physically inactive for long durations of the day.

  2. Being uninclined to move much or exercise.



A mineral you need for proper thyroid function, metabolism, and DNA synthesis (i.e., the process of DNA creation). It is also an antioxidant that neutralizes excess free radicals. Some dietary sources of selenium are brown rice, chicken, eggs, oysters, sardines, sunflower seeds, and tuna. Brazil nuts contain an especially high amount of selenium and should be eaten in moderation.


Self Myofascial Release (SMR)

A method of massaging yourself by breathing deeply and slowly rolling your body across a firm surface such as a foam roller or massage ball to sooth triggers points. Rolling across the trigger point (i.e., knot), which is a spot of tightly contracted muscle tissue, to pinpoint where it is and then holding the position with light pressure applied for a few moments releases the contraction. That allows the muscle tissue to stretch and contract as it normally should. You can perform SMR for warming up before exercising or stretching and for recovering afterwards.



Commitment to devoting time to your own improvement for reasons that have nothing to do with other people’s wants or demands on you.



Multiple reps, or cycles, of an exercise performed consecutively. (See Rep.)

Cluster Set
A set in which you perform a predetermined number of reps of an exercise, pause during the set for a moment (generally 10~45 seconds), and then perform another predetermined number of reps. This creates a clustered pattern of reps, called a subset, within a single set, which typically has at least two or three such pauses. Importantly, the pauses are not necessarily taken at the point of muscular failure but rather after you perform the predetermined number of reps.

The key characteristic of a cluster set is the interruption of accumulated muscle fatigue while the set is in progress, which allows you to resume repping with greater power (i.e., explosiveness) than would be possible if you were performing the entire set with no pauses between reps. Due to mitigated muscle fatigue, you are also able to maintain better form throughout the entire set, handle heavier weight, and perform more total reps per set than when performing a straight set.

9 total reps of bent-over dumbbell rows divided into 3 subsets (=3 reps each) with 10-second rest intervals in between

Compound Set
A set of two exercises targeting the same muscle group, performed in succession with little to no rest in between. The second exercise is often performed at a lower load than the first due to the muscular fatigue accumulated during the first exercise. You can perform compound sets to increase your muscular endurance and strength. They’re also good for providing extra stimulation to an underdeveloped muscle group.

10 reps of leg presses + 10 reps of leg extensions

Drop Set
A single exercise you begin performing until failure (i.e., until you cannot complete any more reps) at a relatively high amount of weight and, without taking a break, adjust the weight lower and continue performing until failure. Ideally, maintain the cycle of adjusting the weight lower and repping until failure each time until you have no choice but to stop and rest.

The point of a drop set is to keep going despite being dog-tired so you force muscle growth, and it’s also a great technique for training your mind to persevere through discomfort. Drop sets also allow you to pack more exercises into a shorter time frame on days when your time is limited or when you want to increase the density of a workout.

Barbell curls at 30 kg, 20 kg, 10 kg, and 5 kg, repping until failure at each weight

Failure Set
A set in which you keep performing reps until concentric failure, which is the limit at which you can no longer complete another rep with the correct form. Broadly speaking, doing a failure set on a machine can be safer because most machines are designed to prevent the weight from collapsing onto your body.

Important: Have a spotter assist you when performing a failure set of an exercise where you might drop the weight on your body when you fail (e.g., bench press, squat).

Set of chin-ups, repping until failure

Giant Set
A set of four exercises targeting the same muscle that you perform in succession with little to no rest in between. Doing giant sets will acutely fatigue the muscle, burn fat, and improve your cardiorespiratory fitness.

Due to the lack of recovery time between exercises, giant sets are not conducive to maxing out the amount of weight you’re lifting and increasing your strength, but rather more effective for achieving hypertrophic gains. As such, they’re good for increasing the size of a muscle that is underdeveloped and correcting imbalances in your physique.

5 reps of back squats + 10 reps of walking dumbbell lunges + 10 reps of leg extensions + 5 reps of leg presses (muscles targeted: quadriceps)

Straight Set
A round of sets you perform with the same number of reps and using the same weight for all the sets. GVT, for example, is based primarily on performing straight sets with regular rest intervals in between. (See German Volume Training.) A straight set can be done using heavy, moderate, or light weight, depending on whether you are trying to increase strength, power, muscle size, or muscle endurance.

5 sets of 10 reps of biceps curls using 20-pound dumbbells

A set of 2 exercises you perform in succession with no rest in between, each for a prescribed number of repetitions or for a certain duration of time. Typically, a superset targets either opposing muscle groups (i.e., antagonistic pair) or two different parts of the body. You can perform supersets to induce hypertrophy, improve your cardiorespiratory capacity, and increase the intensity of your workout.

Supersetting is an effective approach when you have only a limited time to work out but still want to exhaust your muscles. In addition, you can achieve muscle exhaustion using relatively lower weight because super sets increase the density of your training.

10 reps of leg extensions + 10 reps of leg curls *for opposing muscle groups (quadriceps and hamstrings)

Timed Set
An exercise performed repeatedly for a specified amount of time. Unless there is a reason to do so, you don't need to count the number of reps completed.

As Many Reps As Possible (AMRAP)
A timed set in which you perform as many reps of an exercise as possible before time is up. AMRAP is a form interval training that is good for improving your cardiovascular endurance in particular, and your strength to a lesser degree. This is because the focus of AMRAP is performing a massive number of repetitions, which means the load needs to be moderated. Although there are no built-in rest periods, if you rep until failure with time still remaining, you are permitted to rest briefly during the set and then resume repping as soon as you recover enough energy to do so.

Barbell curls at 30 kg, 20 kg, 10 kg, and 5 kg, repping until failure at each weight

Top Set
A set you perform at the highest weight or load for a given exercise. Since “load” is not always the same thing as weight, a top set could even be a timed set. The aim is to work at the peak intensity level for that exercise on that day. Since the difficulty of a top set can fluctuate from day to day based on your fatigue levels and nutrition, another reason you would perform a top set is to evaluate your preparedness and capacity for physical exertion on that day.

Top sets should feel difficult enough to perform—for example, 85% of your one-rep max—so that it’s not possible to do more than a few reps without resting. Typically, performing one or two tops sets will suffice, and you should perform some working sets, usually after but perhaps even before your top sets, to increase your volume of training.

1~3 reps of bench presses at 90% of 1RM

A set of three exercises performed in succession with little to no rest in between. You can target a single muscle group, opposing muscle groups (i.e., antagonistic pair), or two different parts of the body when performing a tri-set. Like giant sets, tri-sets are more effective for achieving hypertrophic gains than increasing strength because they focus more on training volume than maximizing weight. They can also raise your cardiorespiratory capacity, muscle endurance, and the intensity of your workout because you’ll pack more exercises into a shorter time frame on days when your time is limited or when you want to increase the density of a workout.

10 reps of pullups + 12 reps of lat pulldowns + 10 reps of seated rows *for single muscle group (back/lats)

Warmup Set
A set of an exercise you perform with a light weight or load to practice the movement for good form and prime your nervous system, joints, and muscle group(s) you are targeting before proceeding to train with your working weights. A warmup set does not count towards your training volume or rep count during a workout session.

15 reps of bench presses with 20-kg barbell with and no plates attached

Working Set
A set of an exercise you perform for a certain number of reps with a load that is challenging but a bit less taxing than your top set, with the intent of completing multiple sets. They’re usually performed following a warmup set and provide the majority of your training volume. The load should be appropriate for you to maintain good form through each rep. (Johnson, n.d.)

3 sets of 10 reps of seated rows at 75% of 1RM + 2 sets of 10 reps of seated rows at 60% of 1RM


Simple Carbohydrates

See Organic Compounds ➡ Carbohydrates.


Skeletal Muscle Tissue

See Tissue ➡ Muscle Tissue.


Slow-twitch Muscle Fibers (also called Type 1 Muscle Fibers)

Muscle fibers that work and fatigue slowly so you can use them continuously for a long duration. They need a constant supply of oxygen to do so, and exercises that require endurance (biking, marathoning, swimming, etc.) recruit these muscles fibers.


Smooth Muscle Tissue

See Tissue ➡ Muscle Tissue.



A mineral that controls your blood pressure and volume, the water balance in your cells, and supports nerve function and muscular contractions. It’s not difficult to get sufficient sodium in your diet. The problem is that it’s easy to get too much. For example, most people consume much more table salt than is necessary for nutritional purposes. Other sources or excessive sodium are canned, cured, smoked, or salted products such as processed fish, meats, and poultry. Canned and frozen meals, canned vegetables, olives, processed cheese, and soy sauce are some other high-sodium foods. However, the list of high-sodium foods is very long, and these examples are only a snapshot. As is widely known, consuming too much sodium can lead to high blood pressure and even stroke.


Sodium Chloride

Table salt. It roughly 60% chloride and 40% sodium.



See Calf.



Capable of being dissolved or liquefied.
{opposite} Insoluble


Soluble Fiber

See Fiber.



Your inherited body type, or physique. There are 3 somatotypes, each with certain skeletal characteristics.

A thin body type with long limbs and relatively little muscle mass. People who are ectomorphs have a fast metabolism and find it difficult to gain weight but may have poorer eating habits than they realize because they can eat anything without putting on pounds.
{noun} Ectomorph

A stocky or heavyset body type tending to have a wide waist, big bones, relatively high body fat and a good amount of muscle. People who are endomorphs have a slow metabolism and gain weight easily but find it more difficult to lose it.
{noun} Endomorph

A muscular, athletic body type with a small waist and broad shoulders. People who are mesomorphs can gain muscle mass quickly and have either an hourglass or V-shape figure. They also find it relatively easy to gain or lose weight.
{noun} Mesomorph


South Beach Diet

See Low-carb Diet.


Starch (also called Amylum)

This is the most commonly eaten of the three major types of carbohydrates, the other two being sugar and fiber. Starch is a tasteless, odorless, white powder that is naturally produced by grains and green plants. As is true of fiber, starch is a complex carbohydrate, and more specifically, a polysaccharide, meaning it’s made of many sugar units (i.e., multiple monosaccharides) bound together. Starch does not dissolve in alcohol or cold water.

Rapidly Digestible Starch (RDS)
This type of starch is found in cooked foods, such as potatoes and bread, and especially in highly processed foods. It has a simple molecular structure, so your body digests and quickly converts it into glucose, which induces a fast insulin response.

Resistant Starch
A quasi fiber in plant foods that has similar effects on your body as actual fiber does. It resists digestion in the small intestine and ferments in the large intestine to feed beneficial bacteria in your gut. There, it also produces a short-chain fatty acid called butyrate that nourishes the cells in your colon so that it stays healthy. Resistant starches have about half the calories per gram that regular starches do, so they are helpful if you want to lose or maintain weight. Some good sources are barley, lentils, oats, peas, plantains, and white beans.

Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS)
This is a starch is found in whole grains, nuts, and legumes. It has a complex molecular structure, so your digests it slowly. As such, it gets converted into glucose slowly and leads to a more modest insulin response.



To begin or set in motion towards a new objective despite anxiety or opposition.


Straight Set

See Set.


Strength Training (also called Resistance Training)

Exercises that require you to overcome physical resistance for the purpose of increasing your muscle mass, strength, and endurance. Weightlifting and calisthenics are a couple of examples of strength training.


Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT)

See Adipose Tissue.



Your nature and habits, which produce authentic outcomes in your life. Substance is the opposite of a façade and acquiring or enhancing it requires you to invest time, money, and effort in doing so.



An umbrella term for carbohydrates that taste sweet and are disaccharides. Disaccharides are made of two monosaccharides, which are the simplest kind of sugar molecules. Sucrose is table sugar, fructose is sugar from fruits, and lactose is sugar from milk, and they are all disaccharides. Glucose, on the other hand, is a monosaccharide and the form of sugar your blood carries.



A mineral your body needs to produce amino acids and make DNA. It also helps your body detoxify and maintain healthy blood. Some of the foods you can eat to obtain sulfur are beef, chicken, dairy products, eggs, fish, legumes, mussels, nuts, oats, scallops, seeds, shrimp, turkey, and wheat.


Superficial Muscle

A muscle located closer to the surface of your body, making it easier to observe with the naked eye. Superficial refers to the relative, or comparative, position of muscles.
{opposite} Deep Muscle



See Set.



A fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones. Those connections produce bodily movements whenever a muscle contracts and pulls on a bone. Like ligaments, tendons can be sprained or ruptured if stretched too far, but they are less elastic than ligaments.


Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP)

A meat substitute, with no fat or cholesterol, made from soy flour. It is often used in vegetarian dishes.



See Vitamin B1.



The minimum level at which you begin to feel a certain effect from working out. By increasing the frequency and intensity our workouts, you can increase your thresholds over time. Both your thresholds and limits for strain, pain, fatigue, and exhaustion when working out are unique to other people’s, which means that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to fitness that is equally effective for everyone.



A sequence of events that occur progressively, can be influenced by your ideas and actions, and continue to progress after your own awareness and experience of them (i.e., your lifespan) ends. Because time is impossible to recover once passed, and since your experience of it is finite in duration, it’s value can neither be calculated, defined, nor fully understood. Time, at essence, is invaluable to you.


Timed Set

See Set.



A group of cells with a similar structure that work together to perform a particular function. There are 4 types.

Connective Tissue
Supports and protects organs and all other tissues in your body. Bones and blood are examples of connective tissue.

Epithelial Tissue
The covering of body surfaces and the lining of passages inside your body. Skin is the most obvious example. Epithelial tissues are always regenerating.

Muscle Tissue
Creates motion in the different parts of your body through contraction. There are 3 types.

Muscle tissue in the walls of your heart.

Muscle tissue that attaches to bones.

Muscle tissue in the walls of hollow organs such as your stomach and intestines.

Nervous Tissue (also called Neural Tissue)
Controls and coordinates information and bodily functions via the nervous system by receiving stimuli and sending signals to the brain and spinal cord.


Top Set

See Set.


Trace Minerals

See Minerals.


Trans Fats

See Fat ➡ Dietary Fat.


Transversus Abdominis

See Abdominal Muscles Oblique Muscles.


Traps (also called Trapezius Muscles)

Large, superficial muscles of your mid to upper back whose right and left sides form a diamond, or trapezoid, shape and also cover the back of your neck and the top of your inner shoulders. Since they are involved in moving the shoulders and neck, many people train their traps on shoulder days. The traps have lower, middle and upper sections.

Lower Trapezius
The area of your traps that covers a cone-shaped portion of your mid-back. It allows you to flex your shoulder downward when you lower your arms.

Middle Trapezius
The area of your traps that covers the middle of your upper back. It allows you to draw your shoulder blades back so that your chest pokes out.

Upper Trapezius
The area of your traps that covers the back of your neck and top of your shoulders. It allows you to move your neck and hunch (i.e., raise) your shoulders. It also helps to flex your shoulder blade upward when your lift your arms.



See Set.


Triceps (also called Triceps Brachii)

A muscle is located at the back of your upper arm that has a long head, lateral head and medial head. While the lateral and medial heads start at your humerus bone, the long head starts at your scapula, or shoulder blade. The triceps is the largest muscle of your upper arm.


Trigger Point (TrP) (also called Knot)

A sore or stiff spot in your muscle tissue that has contracted into a knot and is sensitive to pressure. You can identify these spots simply by pressing on them.


Triglycerides (also called Lipids)

See Organic Compounds ➡ Lipids.



A hybrid of wheat and rye with rich protein content and high yield. It is mainly used as animal feed but can be consumed by humans as well.


Trunk (also called Torso)

The upper part of your body where all your vital organs are contained. You head and limbs are attached to your trunk.


Type 1 Diabetes

See Diabetes.


Type 2 Diabetes

See Diabetes.


Ultra-Low-Fat Diet

A diet extremely low in fat and very high in carbs. Fat should not be more than 10% of caloric intake, whereas carbs show account for 80% and intake of fiber and antioxidants is high. Lean meat, poultry and fish are eaten in small amounts, but this is mostly a plant-based diet that can help you lose weight. However, plant foods that are fatty such as avocados and olive oil are restricted. Besides weight loss, other benefits may include a reduced risk of heart disease as well as improved health in people who already have type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, it tends to be a very difficult diet to maintain over the long run since the nearly total lack of fat makes meals less tasty than they would be otherwise.


Ultra-Processed Food (UPF) (also called Highly Processed Food)

These are relatively cheap, edible concoctions, usually packaged in plastic and/or boxed, that are produced through industrial processes for mass consumption. In most cases, they are ready to eat or require minimal preparation by the consumer, such as heating in a microwave, boiling briefly, etc. Extrusion and hydrogenation are some common processing methods. As such, they are not something you would be able to produce in your own kitchen.

UPFs typically contain little, if any, whole foods but have a lot of chemical additives to increase shelf life and add flavor, texture, aroma, and color. Sugar, salt, saturated fat levels, and calorie density tend to be quite high. They often contain large amounts of refined carbohydrates as well. The chain of processes a UPF undergoes removes most of the fiber and nutrients and breaks down the cell structure of any natural food ingredients it contains. Producers compensate for the lack of nutrients by fortifying UPFs, which is the practice of adding vitamins and minerals that don’t naturally occur in a product. However, the deficiency of fiber in UPFs enables the gut to digest them faster than whole foods, making them easy to overeat. Eating UPFs in large amounts can cause chronic inflammation inside your body, and obesity and diabetes are correlated with a high intake of UPFs.


Unsaturated Fats

See Fat ➡ Dietary Fat.


Upper Trapezius

See Traps. 



A deliberate improvement in yourself to prevent stagnation in your life. Stagnation, where you get stuck in a certain time, place, or frame of mind, is a continual challenge that you must overcome. When you upgrade, you reach a new level and manifest the next version of yourself.


Vastus Intermedius

See Quadriceps.


Vastus Lateralis

See Quadriceps.


Vastus Medialis

See Quadriceps.



See Vegetarian.



A diet that shuns fish, meat, and poultry. People who adopt this diet typically do so for reasons related to religion, ethics, or culture. There are four common types of vegetarian diets.

Lacto Vegetarian
A diet that includes fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, nuts, seeds, and dairy products, but shuns eggs, fish, meat, and poultry.

Lacto-ovo Vegetarian
A diet that includes fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, nuts, seeds, eggs and dairy products, but shuns fish, meat, and poultry.

Ovo Vegetarian
A diet that includes fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, nuts, seeds, and eggs, but shuns fish, meat, poultry, and all animal products except for eggs.

A strict plant-based diet that shuns fish, meat, and poultry as well as all animal products including eggs, milk, honey, and gelatin.



Any achievement, great or modest, in which you overcome a challenge that is aspirational and requires effort. It’s not important for others to know about your victories. What matters is that you know you achieved something good and constructive. "Victory" is a powerful word that you should implant inside your mind and let echo. Then set challenging goals to pursue and make victory a real thing for you.


Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT)

See Adipose Tissue.



Organic compounds your body needs to function properly and grow. With the exceptions of vitamins D and K, you must get them through your diet. Depending on the type of vitamin, they help to release energy from food, boost your immune system, and speed up chemical reactions in your body among other roles.


Vitamin A

A vitamin essential for your vision, immune system, skin health and new cell growth. Some foods you can get it from are broccoli, cantaloupe, carrots, cheese, grapefruit, liver, mango, papaya, pumpkin, red peppers, salmon, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and watermelon.


Vitamin B1 (also called Thiamin)

A vitamin that enables your body to metabolize energy from carbohydrates and run your nervous system. Some good sources are asparagus, beans, lentils, legumes, nuts, peas, pork, poultry, soybeans, squash, and wholegrains.


Vitamin B2 (also called Riboflavin)

A vitamin your body needs to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for energy. Asparagus, avocados, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, dairy products, eggs, kelp, mushrooms, nuts, parsley, spinach, sweet potatoes, and wholegrains are some good sources.


Vitamin B3 (also called Niacin)

A vitamin that helps lower your cholesterol, converts nutrients into energy, and maintains your digestive and nervous systems. You obtain by eating avocados, beef, chicken, dairy products, eggs, legumes, liver, mushrooms, nuts, pork, salmon, tuna, and whole grains.


Vitamin B6 (also called Pyridoxine)

A vitamin your body needs to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for energy. It has helps to develop a baby’s brain during pregnancy and infancy, regulate the immune system, and create hemoglobin and neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Some good food sources are bananas, broccoli, carrots, cereals, chicken, chickpeas, liver, nuts, onions, potatoes, raisins, spinach, squash, tuna, turkey, and watermelon.


Vitamin B9 (also called Folate or Folic Acid)

A vitamin that is important during early pregnancy to mitigate the risk of birth defects, particularly of the brain and spine, in newborns. It also helps to regulate the immune system and make hemoglobin (for healthy red blood cells) and neurotransmitters. Furthermore, it contributes to DNA synthesis. Your body can absorb vitamin 9 most easily in the form of folic acid, which is added to fortified foods such as cereal. However, natural food sources include asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, bananas, beans, eggs, legumes, lemons, liver, nuts, oranges, spinach, strawberries, turnip greens, and wholegrains.


Vitamin B12

A vitamin your body needs to create red blood cells and DNA as well as protect nerve cells. Plants do not need or produce vitamin B12, so they are not a reliable source. Vegetarians can however get it from eggs and milk. Beef, chicken, clams, crab, fish, liver, mussels are some typical sources for non-vegetarians.


Vitamin C (also called Ascorbic Acid)

An antioxidant vitamin your body needs to form blood cells, cartilage, collagen in bones, and muscle. It is also widely known to help fight infections and repair wounds. Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, grapefruit, kiwi, lemon, oranges, potatoes, spinach, strawberries, and tomatoes are some good sources. Animal sources such as meat and fish provide little or no vitamin C, but liver is a decent source.


Vitamin D

A vitamin your body needs to absorb calcium and phosphate to maintain strong bones and teeth. Your body can naturally synthesize some vitamin D while your skin is exposed to sunshine. Note that lighter skinned people need less time to do this than darker skinned people. It is not naturally found in a lot of foods, but you can get small amounts from cheese, eggs, liver, and milk, and larger amounts from fortified cereals and oily fish such as sardines, salmon, and tuna.


Vitamin E

An antioxidant vitamin you need to keep healthy eyes and skin and strengthen your immune system. Some food sources include almonds, avocados, hazelnuts, kiwi, mangos, seeds, shrimp, spinach, squash, sunflower oil, and wheat germ oil.


Vitamin K

A vitamin your body needs to clot blood (and prevent excessive bleeding), repair wounds, and build bones. Much of the vitamin K you need is acquired from bacteria in your gastrointestinal tract. The rest can be obtained from foods such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard greens, eggs, fish, kale, lettuce, liver, mustard greens, and parsley.


Vitamin P

See Flavonoids.

VO2 Max

A calculation (mL/kg/min) of how effectively your heart pumps blood and how well your muscles draw oxygen from the blood flow. mL/kg/min is how many millimeters of oxygen you take in per kilogram of body weight per minute.


Volumetrics Diet (also called Volume Eating)

A diet that focuses on eating large portions of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to get plenty of vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which keeps you feeling full for longer, while restricting your calorie intake. Since water intake and satiety are high, this diet can help with weight loss. It does not prohibit any foods, but requires eating a high proportion of fruits and vegetables, as well as broth-based soups, so that you fill up your stomach. The volumetrics diet treats all fats the same, whether healthy or unhealthy. Therefore, nuts and seeds, though rich in nutrients and fiber, should be eaten only in small portions since they are high in fat and calories.



Warmup Set

See Set.


Warrior Diet

See Intermittent Fasting.



An inorganic nutrient made of hydrogen and oxygen that is tasteless, odorless, transparent, and exists in liquid, gaseous and solid states. Depending on whether you are a man or a woman, water accounts for 45% to 70% of your body weight. Every cell in your body requires it, and it’s the single most vital nutrient to your survival, as you can only survive a few days without getting some. Water maintains a healthy body temperature and prevents dehydration; transports nutrients and oxygen throughout your body; keeps skin supple and vibrant; protects your spinal cord, joints, and tissues; and flushes out toxins and bodily waste when you perspire, urinate, and have bowel movements.



Can dissolve in water.


Whole Foods

Minimally processed or completely unprocessed foods with natural flavor and abundant vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants. They include fresh fruit and vegetables, legumes, unsalted nuts, and wholegrains.


Wholegrain (also spelled Whole-grain)

Any grain food that retains all its parts, including the germ, endosperm and bran. They are minimally processed and nutrient-rich. Barley, corn, oats, quinoa, rice, rye, sorghum, and wheat are some wholegrain foods.



The capacity of your mind to regulate your emotions and impulses, and therefore your actions. The stronger it is, the more relentless you will be in overcoming discomfort and obstacles.


Working Set

See Set.




An ancient discipline aimed at unifying your body, mind, and spirit to improve your overall well-being. Typically, you hold a series of poses while controlling your breathing and meditating. In addition to lowering your stress levels, practicing yoga can reduce inflammation in your body and mitigate the risk of some chronic diseases.



A mineral your body needs to make DNA, heal wounds and damaged tissue, build proteins, and grow cells. It allows dozens of enzymes to perform essential chemical reactions in your body. Not getting enough zinc can weaken your sense of taste and smell. You can get it by eating beans, beef, cereals, chicken, crab, fish, legumes, lobster, nuts, oysters, rolled oats, unprocessed bran, rice, seed, and wholegrains.


Zone Diet

A diet based on maintaining a balanced intake of the three macronutrients. As such, meals should consist of 40% carbs, 30% percent fat, and 30% protein. The objective of this diet is to ensure healthy insulin levels, prevent inflammation, and reduce the risk of heart disease. Carbs that are low-GI are favored since they do not spike your blood sugar level and keep you feel full longer. (See Glycemic Index.) In fact, the zone diet broadly resembles the Mediterranean diet. A typical meal would include a lot of fruits and vegetables and a moderate amount of lean protein. Monosaturated fats such as from almonds, avocados, and olive oil are preferred. While indulging in sugary and processed foods is discouraged, the zone diet is easier to maintain over the long term than many other diets because it does not explicitly ban any foods.



A high-energy cardiovascular workout based on dancing and aerobics. Zumba classes feature Latin rhythms and a fun atmosphere. Though more popular among women, men are welcome to participate as well.